Tag Archives: fire protection systems

What Is a Fire Suppression System? | Corona, CA

fire extinguisher serviceIt seems like everywhere we look another fire has started to tear through the state. Fire season is one of the scariest times of year if you live in California. If order for our businesses to stay safe, we try to protect ourselves from any fire damage that may occur. To do this, we purchase and install plenty of fire extinguishers and alarms. But if you are installing a fire suppression system, it is important to know what you are dealing with in order to ensure everything and everyone is protected and safe if a fire were to occur. The first components to consider are active components:

  • In order for a suppression system to be effective, detection is key. Professional suppression will use numerous sensors and alarms to detect heat, smoke, and other signs of fire.
  • Once the alarm is triggered, traditional fire extinguishers may be able to extinguish a fire before the full suppression system is activated.
  • Once a fire is detected, the fire may be combatted with sprinkler systems (wet or dry) or chemical-based systems (gaseous systems that displace oxygen, foam systems, or other extinguishing agents).
  • Placement of fire hydrants and plumbing of pipes for fire fighters can help protect a business in case of fire.

Beyond active components, a properly designed system will incorporate passive components – such as firewalls, fire-stops, grease-ducts, and fire-rated materials to help slow the spread of fire, and limit exposure, and protect high risk materials from heat and flame sources. While these components will not necessarily stop a fire, they can help prevent or slow a fire to make containment easy.

For more information about fire suppression systems, call CJ Suppression at 888-821-2334 or visit the website at www.cjsuppression.com.

CJ Suppression proudly serves Corona, CA and all surrounding areas.

Safety Harbor Fire Chief Honored With Industry Award

Chief Josh Stefancic Honored With the American Fire Sprinkler Association’s “Fire Sprinklers Save Lives” Award

Safety Harbor Fire Chief Josh Stefancic has been honored with one of the fire prevention/suppression industry’s most prestigious awards.

Chief Stefancic was recently recognized a with the American Fire Sprinkler Association’s (AFSA) Fire Sprinklers Save Lives award. AFSA Florida Chapter Chairman Chris Johnson, CEO of Piper Fire Protection in Clearwater, Florida, and member of AFSA’s Public Education & Awareness Committee presented the award to Stefancic.

“I am so proud that one of our hometown heroes has been recognized for this award,” Johnson said. “Chief Stefancic is passionate about fire sprinklers and life safety. We are blessed to have him serving in our community and our state.”

Chief Stefancic has helped thousands of firefighters understand the importance – and effectiveness – of fire sprinkler technology and fire protection services through his involvement on the executive board of the International Fire Service Training Association (IFSTA). As part of his role with the IFSTA, Stefancic has helped to author and review several training manuals, including “Fire Detection and Suppression Systems,” a guide educating firefighters on the types, arrangements and operating principles of sprinkler systems. The guide serves as a valuable resource for emergency personnel responding to incidents in protected premises.

Additionally, as a committee member of NFPA 1700, “Guide to Structural Firefighting,” Stefancic has worked to educate his firefighting peers about the benefits of fire sprinkler inspections, fire protection service, and fire sprinkler installations.

Chief Stefancic came to Safety Harbor after a long career with Fire Rescue of Largo, Florida, most recently serving as division chief. He started with Largo in August 2010 as assistant chief of life safety, moving up to assistant chief of emergency management in 2011 and district chief in May of 2012; he was named fire chief of the Safety Harbor Fire Department in June of 2018.

He has a master’s degree in fire and emergency management administration and a bachelor’s degree in fire protection and safety technology from Oklahoma State University. Chief Stefancic is also a graduate of the Executive Fire Officer program from the National Fire Academy in Emmitsburg, Maryland.

Chief Stefancic’s former post also offered their congratulations via their Facebook page.

“Chief Stefancic joins a distinguished list of fire marshals, building officials, and television personalities who have embraced this technology and have become advocates for fire safety,” Largo Fire Rescue wrote in a post. “He has helped thousands of firefighters understand the effectiveness of fire sprinkler technology, through his involvement on the executive board of the International Fire Service Training Association. There he has helped author and reviews several training manuals written to educate firefighters on the basics of fire sprinklers. We congratulate Chief Stefancic on this well-deserved award.”

For more information about fire sprinkler inspections, fire protection services, a 5 year fire sprinkler inspection or other services fire sprinkler installation and fire sprinkler inspection companies can provide, call CJ Suppression at 888-821-2334 or visit the website at www.cjsuppression.com.

CJ Suppression proudly serves Corona, CA and all surrounding areas.

Prepare for a Malfunction | Corona, CA

fire sprinklersWe all assume that if we have fire protection, it will work when the time comes to use it. Whether it be something simple like a fire extinguisher or as elaborate as a customized fire suppression system, these tools are things we need to rely on when a fire breaks out. If it doesn’t, the result can be a disaster.

It’s important to note that simply installing a suppression system is only one step in staying safe. Fire suppression systems are often complex pieces of engineering, and they require care, testing, and maintenance in order to remain functional.

The type of system installed, and the nature of the building it is protecting, will determine how often it must be inspected, how often it should be tested, and what type of labor will be required on the system over time. A skilled system designer, such as CJ Suppression, will not only design the system, but can also assist you in establishing and meeting the maintenance and inspection requirements in order to keep your system functioning properly so that if a fire were to occur, lives and property can be saved.

The exact maintenance regime needed depends on the suppression system and use case. The National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA) has guidelines not only for the types of systems that should be used in various settings, but also for the ongoing maintenance of those systems for proper compliance and safety purposes.

To ensure their reliability, fire systems must be inspected, tested and maintained. CJ Suppression Services’ qualified and experienced staff stands ready to provide fire protection service and maintenance that will keep your fire protection systems reliable and code compliant.

For more information about fire suppression maintenance, call CJ Suppression at 888-821-2334 or visit the website at www.cjsuppression.com.

CJ Suppression proudly serves Corona and all surrounding areas.

Stay Safe this Summer with Fire Prevention | Corona, CA

Contrary to popular belief, we are not at high risk for fires in hotels or other public places. But, in fact, our biggest threats are at home, where we typically feel our safest. And since much of our summertime fun involves BBQs and fun with friends and family, it is important to be ready for any type of fire danger, from accidental fires at home to wildfires that pop up without warning. One way to do this is with fire sprinklers. You may not automatically think about fire sprinklers in our homes, but home fires can cause property damage, or far worse – take the lives of our loved ones.

Nearly, 2,500 people lose their lives each year in home fires in the United States. It can be nerve wracking to think about these statistics, however, this should be a reason to consider installing fire sprinklers in your home.

Because Hollywood makes an exaggerated image of everything, including fires, many people seem to think that when a fire occurs, the entire system goes off & soaks the place down. This is false. When one fire sprinkler is triggered, the rest do not activate. Nearly 85 percent of the time only one fire sprinkler activates during a fire, which as mentioned earlier, results in significantly less property damage when compared to a fire hose. And now that homes are burning more quickly than before due to having larger spaces and lightweight construction materials, having a fire suppression system is extremely important.

Summertime is a fun time for getting outside and enjoying the weather. Make sure you have one less worry by having fire sprinklers installed in your home.

For more information about fire extinguishers, call CJ Suppression at 888-821-2334 or visit the website at www.cjsuppression.com.

CJ Suppression proudly serves Corona and all surrounding areas.

Trump Tower Fire in NYC

The Trump Tower fire in New York City on April 7th left 67-year-old ToddBrassner dead and six firefighters injured. The apartment where the fire broke out did not have sprinklers or a smoke alarm. On April 16th, the New York Fire Department confirmed that the cause of the fire was an accident caused by “electrical-sequenced power strips containing multiple components.”

This fire marks the second fire in the building this year. On January 8th, two civilians and one firefighter suffered injuries from a fire on the top of the building. Mr. Trump’s son, Eric Trump, stated that the January fire had been sparked by an electrical issue in a cooling tower.

The skyscraper opened in 1984 without sprinklers on its residential floors. This measure has been required in new buildings since 1999, when New York City because the last big city in the United States to require sprinklers. Mr. Trump, a private citizen and property developer at the time, had lobbied to try and prevent the mandate. The 1999 bill requiring sprinklers was spurred on by two fires in 1998, one of which occurred in an apartment block with no sprinklers, and the other of which occurred when hallway sprinklers failed.

Survivors of the fires had wanted all buildings to have sprinklers, but the legislation that was passed was not retroactive. This meant that the legislation passed stated that any buildings constructed before that time were only required to have sprinklers if they underwent gut renovations, essentially only requiring that new buildings install sprinklers.

After the legislation passed, Mr. Trump recanted his previous position, stating that he understood that sprinklers would make residents feel safer. As a result of the new bill, Mr. Trump’s new 72-story Trump World Tower, built between 1999 and 2001, incurred $3 million in costs for the installation of sprinklers. However, Mr. Trump, along with many other existing property owners, did not retrofit their existing buildings with sprinkler systems.

Neither Mr. Trump nor any of his family were in the building at the time of the fire. FDNY Commissioner Daniel Nigro has stated that there is extra fire protection at Trump Tower when Mr. Trump is present.

 

Sources:

https://www.cbsnews.com/news/trump-tower-fire-second-2018-blaze-in-sprinkler-free-residence/

https://ny.curbed.com/2018/4/17/17246426/trump-tower-fire-nyc-cause-april-2018

 

Your Building Needs a Foam Suppression System | Corona, CA

fire-protection-imageWhen you own a building, it is important to protect not only your investment, but everything and everyone that will be using said building. There are lots of options when it comes to fire safety, one of them being foam suppression systems. But, is that the best option for you? Let’s have a quick introduction to foam suppression systems:

Fire-fighting foam systems suppress fire by separating the fuel from the air. There are different types of foam systems, and which system you choose will dictate how it is done:

  • Foam covers the fuel surface and smothers the fire
  • The fuel source is cooled by the foam’s water content
  • The foam blanket suppresses the release of flammable vapors that can mix with the air

If you would like to see how a foam suppression system is being tested, click here.

Engineered and manufactured fire suppression systems ensure a rapid, thorough, and economical response to fires and spills. High-expansion foam systems provide fire-fighting protection for diverse applications: aircraft hangars, basements, cable tunnels, flammable packaging areas, flammable liquid drum storage areas, hazardous waste facilities, LNG tank farms and loading facilities, mines, roll-paper warehouses, shipboard engine rooms, bilges, and holds, storage buildings, warehouses, and fire breaks.  The light, voluminous foam blanket produced by our high-expansion foam systems can quickly obtain great heights, reaching elevated flammable materials (such as on storage racks).  The foam blanket efficiently transports small amounts of water to the fire, encapsulating the flammable vapors and causing suppression and extinguishing. Foam suppression systems are one of the most effective ways to secure your building from any fire emergency.

For more information about foam suppression systems, call CJ Suppression at 888-821-2334 or visit the website at www.cjsuppression.com.

Accepting patients from Chino, Ontario, Redlands, Moreno Valley, Upland, Rancho Cucamonga, Rialto, Fontana and all surrounding areas.

Station Fire and Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

To remember those who lost their lives and honor those who survived the devastating Station Fire in West Warwick, Rhode Island, a memorial service was held on February 20th, exactly fifteen years after the event. Among attendees at the service, the National Fire Sprinkler Association was present to share information about new legislation that can potentially prevent similar fires from occurring in the future.

The legislature in question, the Tax Cuts & Jobs Act, recently received several critical provisions that will provide significant tax incentives for property owners to install fire sprinklers. Under Section 179, small businesses will be able to fully expense fire sprinklers, up to a cap of $1 million in each year of expense. This allows for retrofitting and upgrading of numerous properties. Furthermore, any small business that needs to borrow money to pay for the retrofitting will be able to fully deduct the interest expense on the loan.

Fire services and other advocates can now promote fire sprinklers and overall improvements to fire protection systems in existing small businesses with the financial support from these provisions. The installation or upgrading of fire protection systems can prevent loss of life, injuries, emotional distress, bankruptcy, and even imprisonment, all of which occurred as a result of the Station Fire.

https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/national-fire-sprinkler-association-joins-other-national-organizations-at-15-year-station-fire-anniversary-service-300602324.html

Conducting Flow Tests

Hydrant Flow Tests

Hydrant flow tests are important to determine the flow rate and pressure in any location throughout a water distribution system. To ensure that fire hydrants are capable of providing water at an acceptable pressure and flow rate for public health and firefighting operations, hydrants must be tested regularly.

Hydrant flow tests are conducted to provide information to design a water-based suppression system and to determine if the water supply will meet firefighting requirements.

To minimize time and monetary cost, it is important to ensure that flow tests are conducted properly to reduce the chances of having to conduct multiple tests. For example, if tests conducted incorrectly may determine that a fire pump is not necessary when it actually is, and end up wasting time and money while harming reputations. To avoid this, it is best to complete hydrant flow tests as correctly as possible.

Introduction to the NFPA 291

Fire hydrant flow tests can vary greatly across the industry and the nation. To ensure that flow tests are correctly performed, we recommend following the recommended practice detailed by the The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) in NFPA 291, Recommended Practice for Fire Flow Testing and Marking of Hydrants.

Notes About the NFPA 291

Current editions of NFPA 291 recommend group testing, where you flow more than one hydrant. Although this may be problematic and not entirely necessary, using one hydrant for static and residual pressures while using a different hydrant for flow is the best practice.

Chapter 4 of NFPA 291, 2016 edition, recommends having a static, or test, hydrant and one or more residual, or flow, hydrants. To determine how many flow hydrants are required, it is recommended to flow enough water to provide at least a 25% drop in residual pressure when compared to the static pressure.

It is generally accepted that a 25% drop is not required to design a fire suppression system. Since the hydrant flow tests are also used to determine whether the water supply meets firefighting requirements, it is best practice to flow a similar amount of water as the most demanding flow, regardless of pressure. It is impractical in some jurisdictions to get a 25% drop in pressure, even when required fire flows are easily achievable. Ultimately, the results of the flow test should provide enough information to accurately plot the static and residual points on a water supply graph to demonstrate water demand against water supply.

It may be best to show the water supply curve at 20 psi because the International Fire Code Appendix B and the NFPA 1 have required fire flows at 20 psi.

Choosing a Hydrant to Test

When choosing which hydrants to test, it is important to consider traffic issues and any potential damage to the area surrounding the flow hydrant due to the water flow. After determining which hydrants will be used for the flow test, a time should be selected when there is “ordinary” water demand. For residential areas, this time might be between 6:00-9:00am and 4:00-8:00pm, when most people are at home using water. For industrial areas, this time might be between 7:00am and 6:00pm, as this is when most facilities will be operating.

It is better to use 2 ½ inch hydrant outlets as opposed to the pumper outlets, which is anything larger than the 2 ½ outlet, because the 2 ½ inch outlets are completely filled across the entire cross section of the outlet. On the other hand, pumper outlets will have voids, which can result in inaccurate pressure readings. If using the 2 ½ inch outlets is impractical or if they cannot produce the necessary flow, the pumper outlets can be used, but the resulting flow should be modified to account for the voids in the water flow.

How to Conduct the Flow Test with a Pitot Tube

Ideal Pressure Readings

When conducting the test, it is important to completely open all hydrants to reduce the potential for damage to the hydrant and preserve the accuracy of the test. For the greatest accuracy when conducting a reading using a handheld pitot tube, NFPA 291 recommends keeping the pitot tube pressure readings between 10 and 30 psi at full flow, or when the hydrant is completely open.

This is due to the problems that arise when pressure is outside of that range. If pressures are below 10 psi, the flow is not enough to completely fill the cross section of the open outlet and can result in inaccurate readings. If the pressure rises above 30 psi, it can be difficult to align and maintain the position of the pitot tube for long enough to take an accurate reading. Furthermore, pressures above 30 psi may bend or break pitot tube blades.

That being said, the 10 to 30 psi range is a recommendation. If it is impractical to open multiple hydrants at once, it is best to keep pressures as close to 30 psi as possible while opening as many hydrants at full flow as feasible.

Angling the Pitot Tube

When using a handheld pitot tube, make sure to hold the blade perpendicular (at a right angle, or 90 degrees) to the outlet, so that the orifice of the pitot tube blade is approximately half the distance downstream of the outlet (1 ¼ inches for a 2 ½ inch outlet) and in the center of the flow for the most accurate reading.

Other Considerations

If multiple outlets and hydrants are used to achieve the desired flow, a single pitot reading at each hydrant can be taken and these values added together to determine the total flow at the residual pressure.

Conducting Flow Tests Without Pitot Tubes

As there are multiple products on the market that make finding flow pressure easier and more accurate, handheld pitot tubes are used less often. If you are utilizing one of these products, make sure to verify the flows at different pressure readings, as manufacturers may have different methods of determining the flow for products that are not covered in NFPA 291. These other products also have recommended pressure-operating ranges, so it is important to check all information before conducting a flow test.

The NFPA 291 does have an option for getting flow reading without a pitot tube or other flow pressure reading device in Section 4.9. This section states that a hydrant cap can be used on one 2 ½ inch outlet while opening and flowing the other 2 ½ inch outlet, because the reading should be approximately the same. However, this should not be considered an equivalent option in place of a pitot tube and is only to be done if a pitot tube or other flow pressure reading device is unavailable.

Gauge Accuracy

When conducting a hydrant flow test, it is best to have a selection of gauges with various pressure reading ranges, as gauges tend to be more accurate in the middle of their calibrated range. Furthermore, the range should match the flow that is being measured, as a gauge with a maximum pressure of 200 psi may have difficulty accurately reflecting a pressure between 10 and 30 psi. Conversely, a gauge with a range between 10 and 30 psi would not be able to measure a pressure that was much higher than 30 psi.

Gauge accuracy is also a percentage of the maximum reading of the gauge, so a greater range is not always better. If there is a selection of gauges to choose from, then they can be changed to keep the reading within the optimal range.

Although air-filled pressure gauges are usable, it is recommended to use digital or liquid-filled analog gauges, which can reduce the vibrations in the needle and make the reading easier to read.

To obtain the most accurate reading from residual and flow gauges, it is best to let the hydrant flow for a little while to stabilize the flow before taking a reading. Once the flow is stable, note the high and low readings of the pressure range on the gauges to determine an average. The average residual and flow pressures are the values that should be used as results, as opposed to using the minimum or maximum value obtained.

Opening and Closing Hydrants

It is important to properly open and close hydrants before and after conducting flow tests. It is particularly important when conducting a flow test with a dry barrel hydrant or in areas subject to freezing.

If a dry barrel hydrant is not completely opened, it can flow an excessive amount of water out of the weep hole and cause soil erosion around the hydrant base. Erosion over time can cause the hydrant to sink and may potentially damage the underground piping.

Furthermore, if a dry hydrant is not properly closed, water can be trapped in the barrel or cause water to continually flow from the weep hole. Water trapped within the dry barrel in areas subject to freezing can cause internal damage to the hydrant.

Proper Procedure to Open and Close Hydrants

To ensure that hydrants are properly opened and closed, follow these procedures when opening and closing the hydrant. When opening the hydrant, count the number of complete turns to verify that are made until the operating nut can no longer turn, then turn it back a quarter of a turn. When closing the hydrant, count the number of complete turns to verify that it was the same number of turns as used to open the hydrant. Once again, the hydrant should be backed off a quarter of a turn.

Before reinstalling the final hydrant cap, verify that the water has been completely drained out of the dry barrel by feeling for negative pressure at the outlet. To do so, place a hand over the open 2 ½ inch hydrant outlet for a few seconds to feel for suction. The first few times, there will be an audible pressure release when the hand is removed. Continue to do this until there is no more suction. Then, the caps may be safely replaced.

Other Considerations

Some other factors to take into account that can greatly affect your test results are whether there are any booster pumps on the water supply, whether there are water storage tanks, and the elevation of the hydrants. These effects have a higher residual pressure than static pressure, but not all water supplies have a linear relationship of flow to pressure.

These measures are important because for some water supplies, when the flow demand increases, additional water can be provided to an area through multiple pumps or valves, causing complex geometries to the pressure and flow relationship at any given point in the system. Although there is no current guidance in the NFPA 291 about this effect, it may eventually be added.

Note: Because NFPA 291 is a recommended practice, all recommendations do not have to be met exactly unless the local jurisdiction has specifically adopted NFPA 291.

Sources:

https://www.aspe.org/sites/default/files/webfm/ArchivedIssues/2011/201112/FocusonFireProtection.pdf

https://sprinklerage.com/conducting-flow-tests/

How the Rain Is Affecting Our Fire Season | Corona, CA

(CNN):  It’s called an “atmospheric river” — basically a river in the sky — that could unleash catastrophic amounts of rain.

And the major storm is barreling right toward the fire-scarred regions of Southern California, with a potential to trigger flash flooding, mudslides and significant debris flow.

The heaviest rainfall is expected Wednesday evening through Thursday, and officials have already ordered mandatory evacuations in Santa Barbara, Ventura and Los Angeles counties.

Up to 2 inches of rain have fallen in the burn scar areas since late Tuesday and the worst in Santa Barbara County is expected after dawn Thursday.

“That’s a concern when you put in the heaviest rainfall anywhere in the United States and put it right over Southern California, directly over burn scars,” CNN meteorologist Pedram Javaheri said.

“Some of the areas could see 6 inches of rainfall over 36 hours. That’s six to eight months of rainfall in 36 hours, right over what would be a significant Thomas Fire burn scar region,” he said.

The Thomas Fire, the largest fire in California’s modern history, ignited in December and burned about 281,900 acres in Ventura and Santa Barbara counties.

Santa Barbara County officials have issued a mandatory evacuation order affecting about 30,000 people in extreme and high-risk debris flow areas ahead of the strongest storm of the season in that region. The mandatory evacuation there was effective from noon Tuesday for burn areas near the Thomas, Sherpa and Whittier fires.

The amount of rain and the intensity are enough to cause flooding even without the impact of the recent fires.

“We could experience localized flooding and road closures, which are not isolated to the burn areas. The threat of rock falls, mudslides and debris flow is high,” said Rob Lewin, director of the Santa Barbara County Office of Emergency Management.

Mandatory and voluntary evacuations also took effect at noon Tuesday in Ventura County.

Los Angeles County officials ordered evacuations in areas affected by the recent Creek and La Tuna Canyon fires starting at 6 p.m. Wednesday, and warned other residents living in areas affected by recent fires to prepare for evacuations and street closures.

The large and powerful storm system across the eastern Pacific Ocean is expected to bring periods of moderate to heavy rain through late Thursday or early Friday.

Atmospheric rivers are long, narrow channels that transport water vapors outside the tropics. The one that’s saturating California is known as the Pineapple Express, because it brings moisture from the tropical Pacific near Hawaii and can wallop the West Coast with rain and snow.

The National Weather Service predicts rainfall rates between a half to three-quarters of an inch per hour, with rain totals of 5 to 10 inches in the foothills and mountains. This total is significantly more than during the January 9 debris flow, when there were 3 to 6 inches of rainfall across the region.

CNN’s Joe Sutton, Paul Vercammen, Monica Garrett and Madeline Scheinost contributed to this report.

For more information about fire season protection, call CJ Suppression at 888-821-2334 or visit the website at www.cjsuppression.com.

Accepting patients from Chino, Ontario, Redlands, Moreno Valley, Upland, Rancho Cucamonga, Rialto, Fontana and all surrounding areas.

Foam: Not Just for Your Coffee Anymore | Corona, CA

As we begin the new year, we tend to think of different ways to improve upon ourselves. Sometimes it isn’t just our health that should be considered. If you are looking to keep you and yours safe and healthy this year, think about the way you can protect yourselves against any home accidents, especially fire prevention. While there may be lots of ways you can be prepared for a fire, one way to keep yourselves safe is a foam fire suppression system.

So, what is foam suppression? Engineered and manufactured, foam fire suppression systems ensure a rapid, thorough and economical response to fires and spills. A light, voluminous foam blanket produced by our high-expansion foam systems can quickly obtain great heights, reaching elevated flammable materials. This foam blanket efficiently transports small amounts of water to the fire, encapsulating the flammable vapors, causing suppression and extinguishment.

Customized to application specifications, engineered systems include: bladder tanks and pump-type balanced-pressure proportioning systems, in-line balanced-pressure proportioning systems, high-expansion foam systems, large dry chemical systems and skids, twin-agent systems and skids, foam trailers, large dry chemical and twin-agent trailers, monitor trailers, aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) pump systems, water-powered AFFF pump skids, foam/water monitors, nozzles, eductors, ratio-flow controllers, foam makers and chambers, specialized proportioning storage and monitor trailers.

Useful for various purposes, high-expansion foam systems provide protection for the following applications: aircraft hangars, basements, cable tunnels, flammable packaging areas, flammable liquid drum storage areas, hazardous waste facilities, LNG tank farms and loading facilities, mines, roll-paper warehouses, shipboard engine rooms, bilges, and holds, storage buildings, warehouses, and fire breaks.